United Kingdom

Low income by gender

Key points

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Graph 1: Over time (all adults)

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Graph 2: Over time (single adults only)

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Graph 3: By family type

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Graph 4: Shares by family type

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Graph 5: Over time by family type

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Graph 6: By age

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Why this indicator was originally chosen

Neither the scale of the differences in the prevalence of low income by gender, nor the reasons for these differences, appear to be well known.

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Definitions and data sources

The first graph shows how the risk of an adult being in a low-income household has changed over time, with the data shown separately for men and women.

The second graph shows how the risk of a single adult (i.e. excluding couples) being in a low-income household has changed over time, with the data shown separately for men and women.

The third graph shows, for each family type, the risk of an adult being in a low-income household, with the data again shown separately for men and women. 

The fourth graph shows the division of the adults in low-income households by family type, with the data again shown separately for men and women.

The fifth group shows, for each family type, how the risk of an adult being in a low-income household has changed over time.

The sixth graph shows, for men and women separately, how the risk of being in a low-income household varies by age.

The averaging over three-year periods in the third to sixth graphs has been done to improve their statistical reliability.

The data source for all the graphs is Households Below Average Income, based on the Family Resources Survey (FRS).  For 2002/03 onwards, the data relates to the United Kingdom whilst the data for earlier years is for Great Britain (FRS did not cover Northern Ireland until 2002/03).  Income is disposable household income after deducting housing costs and the low-income threshold is the same as that used elsewhere, namely 60% of contemporary median household income.  All the data is equivalised (adjusted) to account for differences in household size and composition.  The self-employed are included in the statistics.  Note that in 2007 DWP made some technical changes to how it adjusted household income for household composition (including retrospective changes) and, as a result, the data is slightly different than previously published figures.

Overall adequacy of the indicator: high.  The FRS is a well-established annual government survey, designed to be representative of the population as a whole.

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External links

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Relevant 2007 Public Service Agreements

Overall aim:  Halve the number of children in poverty by 2010-11, on the way to eradicating child poverty by 2020.

Lead department

HM Treasury.

Official national targets

Reduce by a half the number of children living in relative low-income by 2010/11.

Other indicators of progress

Number of children in absolute low-income households.

Number of children in relative low-income households and in material deprivation.

Previous 2004 targets

Halve the number of children in relative low-income households between 1998/99 and 2010/11, on the way to eradicating child poverty by 2020, including:

By 2008, be paying Pension Credit to at least 3.2 million pensioner households.  While maintaining a focus on the most disadvantaged by ensuring that at least 2.2 million of these households are in receipt of the Guarantee Credit.

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The numbers

Graphs 1 and 2

Year All adultsSingle adults only
Men WomenMenWomen
1994/95 20% 24% 26% 35%
1995/96 20% 24% 24% 35%
1996/97 20% 25% 26% 38%
1997/98 19% 24% 24% 36%
1998/99 19% 24% 24% 35%
1999/00 19% 23% 25% 35%
2000/01 19% 23% 23% 34%
2001/02 18% 22% 23% 32%
2002/03 19% 22% 24% 31%
2003/04 18% 21% 23% 29%
2004/05 17% 19% 22% 27%
2005/0619% 20% 24% 27%
2006/0719% 21% 24% 28%
2007/0819% 21% 24% 29%
2008/0919% 21% 25% 28%

Graph 3

Family type Men Women
Single pensioners 16% 22%
Single working age without dependent children 25% 25%
Single working age with dependent children 46% 49%
All couples 16% 16%

Graph 4

Family type Millions
Men Women
Single pensioners0.2M 0.7M
Single working age without dependent children 1.6M 1.0M
Single working age with dependent children 0.1M 0.9M
Couples 2.5M 2.5M

Graph 5

Family type 1996/97 to 1998/99 2006/07 to 2008/09
Single pensioners38% 20%
Single working age without dependent children 23% 25%
Single working age with dependent children 60% 48%
Couples 17% 16%

Graph 6

Age groupMen Women
16-1929% 34%
20-2426% 30%
25-2919% 23%
30-3418% 21%
35-3919% 22%
40-4419% 21%
45-4917% 18%
50-5417% 17%
55-5918% 20%
60-6420% 17%
65-6914% 17%
70-7415% 17%
75-7917% 20%
80+18% 22%

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