Rural England

Numbers in low pay

Key points

top

Graph 1: Rural/urban rates (by residency)

View Graph as PDF (resizeable)   Right click to save large version of Graph as PNG

top

Graph 2: Rural/urban rates (by place of work)

View Graph as PDF (resizeable)   Right click to save large version of Graph as PNG

top

Graph 3: Rural/urban shares

View Graph as PDF (resizeable)   Right click to save large version of Graph as PNG

top

Graph 4: Rates by job type and gender

View Graph as PDF (resizeable)   Right click to save large version of Graph as PNG

top

Graph 5: Shares by job type and gender

View Graph as PDF (resizeable)   Right click to save large version of Graph as PNG

top

Rural/urban ratios (urban = 10)

On most poverty and social exclusion indicators, rural areas have 'better scores' than urban areas.  The purpose of the table below is to differentiate between those subjects where rural areas are 'a bit better' and those where rural areas are 'a lot better'.  It does so by presenting the rural statistics for the indicator as a proportion of the urban statistics.  So, for example, a rural 'score' of 6 in the table below means that the rural statistic is around 60% of its urban equivalent.

By residency

Type of districtOverall Female part-time Male part-time Female full-time Male full-time
'Very rural' districts11 10 10 12 11
'Mostly rural' districts10 9 10 12 10
'Part rural' districts10 9 9 11 10

By place of work

Type of districtOverall
'Very rural' districts13
'Mostly rural' districts12
'Part rural' districts11

top

Definitions and data sources

The graphs

For each type of local authority district, the first two graphs show the proportion of employees paid less than 7 per hour in 2009.  The data in the first graph is by residency (i.e. where people live) and the data in the second graph is by place of work.  7 per hour is roughly two-thirds of the Great Britain median hourly earnings and is commonly used as a threshold when analysing low pay.

The third graph shows the distribution of employees paid less than 7 per hour by type of district.  Note that the figures are similar by residency and by place of work.

For each type of local authority district, the fourth graph shows the proportion of employees paid less than 7 per hour in 2009 for each combination of gender and full-/part-time, where (in the case of an individual having multiple jobs), the analysis is for main job of the individual.

For each type of local authority district, the fifth graph shows the share of employees paid less than 7 per hour in 2009 by gender and full-/part-time.

The data in the fourth and fifth graphs is by residency and the dataset does not allow an equivalent analysis by place of work.

Level of the data

Lower tier local authorities (districts), as classified by the DEFRA 2009 classification system.  Both the DEFRA classification rules and their results by local authority can be found on the page on rural/urban classification systems.

Source

First, second and third graphs: the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE).  Note that, because of limitations in the published data, it is not possible to provide from this source any rural/urban estimates of low pay by gender, age or any other characteristic.

Fourth and fifth graphs: the Annual Population Survey (APS), which is effectively the Labour Force Survey with selected booster samples to compensate for small sample sizes in some authorities.  Note that the low pay data from the APS is generally considered to be a bit more unreliable than that from ASHE, and somewhat overestimates the numbers, but it provides much more flexibility in what can be analysed.

top

The numbers

Graphs 1 and 3

Type of districtRate Numbers
'Very rural' districts19% 400,000
'Mostly rural' districts17% 500,000
'Part rural' districts16% 500,000
Urban authorities17% 2,100,000

Graph 2

Type of districtRate
'Very rural' districts22%
'Mostly rural' districts20%
'Part rural' districts19%
Urban authorities16%

Graphs 4 and 5

Type of district Female part-time Male part-time Female full-time Male full-time
RateNumbers RateNumbers RateNumbers RateNumbers
'Very rural' districts44% 150,000 58% 50,000 24% 90,000 15% 100,000
'Mostly rural' districts42% 190,000 58% 60,000 24% 140,000 15% 140,000
'Part rural' districts42% 190,000 52% 40,000 21% 120,000 14% 140,000
Urban authorities44% 790,000 57% 280,000 19% 550,000 14% 630,000

top